Today we will be discussing the issue which has a great significance for India and its foreign affairs. Each and every country has its foreign affairs ministry and have experts to deal with various situations and countries. But why one would need to invest huge amount just for framing policies regarding away countries . The simple answer is , now the World is de jure a global village but de facto it’s still a savage jungle where one with bigger stick will live with better dignity. Wars fought at various times are proof to this logic. Be it world wars , cold war for consolidation various forms of government i.e. Capitalist or Communist . Let’s get started with the blog .
Cold war 2.0?
First of all , cold war means a type of war which never gets heated up and become two front direct war. But it has a very high potentiality of becoming a full fledged war i.e. threat of 3rd world war. Since the end of 2nd world war , this question has threatened people many a times . Previously USA and USSR were in front of each other and in many situations world was in the mouth of destruction just because of deadly nuclear weapons. But honestly speaking it would be too early to analyse USA and China in accordance with Cold War tactics but it’s not too far. Both the powers have found each other on opposite front . Like , Communist party regime in China , although it’s not communist in economic sense , but it poses threat to democracy for other countries . Trade war , in it both the countries gambled on their economic stability by putting heavy sanctions on imports from each other. The latest fight they have engaged each other are , hegemony of China in South China sea and practice of espionage by China that we will discuss in detail.
India a very neutral nation , never willing to directly involve in any war like situation unless it’s own pride or land is at risk. We are the only country which shares land boundary with China and have our inclination towards anti China alliances or vice versa is also true. Let’s discuss about issue that we are having with China. But first of all we should know what is LAC ( Line of Actual Control) and how it differs from LOC ( Line of Control). We share the former with China and the later with Pakistan but this is not the only difference. If two countries have agreed upon territorial boundaries of each other then it is known as LOC . But it has not been formally decided by both parties and have territorial claims on the same land by both the parties , then for peace and tranquillity they agree upon a LAC , but in this case there is dispute over LAC agreement .
First among all , Border dispute is the major factor for the bitterness in our relations. There are two fronts where we are having different claims. First one is Ladakh region and other is Arunachal Pradesh. In both the areas India is official administrator. Ladakh region is situated in between Himalayan mountains and has been a dispute between India-Pakistan-China. Now Ladakh is union territory but earlier it was part of Jammu and Kashmir, which was wholly claimed by Pakistan. But the big question is why China claims it . Like all other countries there are political motives of each and every party to please it’s people with some National agenda so that they could enjoy popular support. It is more necessary when there is no elections and a single party ruling a country all years long. Mao Zedong an important person in Chinese history and responsible for the formation of communist party of China in his many speeches he has mentioned a long term strategy of expansion of Chinese strategy . That is , Tibet is the right hand palm of mainland China and it’s 5 fingers are Ladakh , Nepal , Sikkim , Bhutan and Arunachal Pradesh and it’s their responsibility to free them from foreign rule.
The expansionist strategy of communist rule is used to put pressure on the country so that they can have a strong hold on them and easily alter their strategy.
1. In Ladakh region there are various friction points , Galwan (where a brutal faceoff took place, leading to martyr of 20 Indian army personnel and many of Chinese side also but exact number is unknown as they don’t show it in official data).
2. Pangong Tso , the most important among the various friction points . Frankly speaking they are continuously trying to push India back . This region is divided into various parts known as finger points representing various mountainous areas. There are 8 finger points in total and both the countries have their own perception of LAC. But the fearsome fact is China has increased its claim than in previous times . In 1960s China proposed it’s final claim location before us which lies near to finger 4 and 5 but in recent clashes it has claimed almost all the finger points.
3. Arunachal Pradesh , the whole area is claimed by China and according to then India is illegal player in this region. It is also the part of Chinese strategy of 5 fingers of Tibetan palm.
4. China’s regular help to Pakistan. The proverb , enemy of enemy is my friend , perfectly suits this situation. India and Pakistan are arch rivals and it doesn’t seems it will be seeing an end in recent future. So Pakistan sees China as a better ally to have as both of them share boundaries with India.
5. China enjoys trade surplus over and for India its deficit . We faced trade deficit with China since long time but in recent year we have seen significant decrease in deficit . In year 2017–18 the trade deficit was $63 billion , in 2018–19 it came to $53 billion and in the year 2019–20 it is $48.66 billion.
6. China’s latest claim on Sakteng sanctuary situated near Bhutan Arunachal boundary , is worrisome fact . It means China is officially recognising Arunachal as its own territory. Whenever Indian government representatives visit Arunachal it is officially condemned by Chinese officials as they think it’s illegal.
7. This list is endless and it clarifies what is China’s perception towards India. China sees India as regional threat since long time . As of now we have seen they have tried many a times to restrict progress in India and always our strategy has been to appease China and not to infuriate them . Now we can see , China is biggest industrial country in the region or it’s better to say in the whole world. Technological sector of China way better than India , even American companies have installed it’s manufacturing centres in China . But why it so , why they didn’t had looked over other countries like India , Japan , and many southeast Asian countries. Let’s move on that issue .
China a global threat?
USA-China relations have deteriorated to that much extent so that reversal isn’t possible in near future . The secretary to State of US Mike Pompeo has openly criticised Chinese aggressive strategy over Ladakh region and declared China as a bully. US President Donald Trump has declared Corona Virus as a Chinese virus. But here we will discuss latest development in this relations .
1. South China Sea — China claims whole sea as it territory and tries to dominate over all the countries having coastline with this sea. But according to UNCLOS ( United Nations Convention on the Law Of the Sea) , sea territory is defined approximately 12 Nautical miles (22km) from the coastline of the country. And after that there is international waters and no country can claim that as its territory . International waters are free for all and there is no charges on trade through that route . US deployed it’s two aircraft carriers in this region to ensure openness of trade via this route . They are , USS Ronald Reagan, USS Theodore Roosevelt. USS Nimitz is also patrolling in indo Pacific region US is the only country to have 12 active aircraft carriers . Only three countries , China , UK and Italy have 2 active aircraft carriers and other countries like , France , Russia , India , Spain, Thailand have only 1 active aircraft carrier.
2. Quad group , it was formed to meet a different purpose as it is meeting now. In the year 2004 Japan was hit hard by cyclone so to help Japan , these countries coordinated with each other to provide help. But as of now it has to serve a different purpose i.e. to maintain freedom of navigation in this region. So , US , Japan and Australia conducted a military drill near Philippines . In later stage India and US performed Maritime exercise to ensure , when both have to work together they can understand each other’s system and way of working. It helps a lot while war like situations.
3. China provides heavy loans to small Countries in the name of development , but in the later stage the countries are unable to pay loan then China puts forward a proposal of taking their land on lease on very low amount and small Countries sees it as a better option than the loan repayment. But what China gains by taking land on lease . First thing while giving loan , China ensures that this money should be invested only in Chinese firms hence the money directly comes back in the circle of Chinese economy . If the borrower country is able to repay the loan then for China it’s just economical benefits. But if they get the land on lease they deploy their military their and place acts as a base for Chinese army . In recent time China has taken Tulagi Island , part of Solomon Island Group, on lease for 99 years. It is situated near Australia and hence threat for them also. As militarily Australia is not so strong so they are trying to fit in the quad group to give their own system a sort of experience for their own system and most importantly the support of US .
4. $400 Billion deal with Iran , this deal is not finalized yet but the days are not so far . The US policy of putting maximum pressure on Iran so that a better nuclear deal can be made on the US terms.
5. Houston consulate of China , has been evacuated forcefully by US , putting espionage charges on them . And in retaliation China ordered to shut Chengdu Consulate of US which lies in Tibet region.
After considering these points we can sum up that these relations are not going to become sweet in near future. And India will be considered an important player in this respect. A single article is not enough to discuss throughout this issue.
Hope you liked the blog . I have tried to provide a collection of information of all the developments happening around the world. If any of the information are wrong please correct me in the comments section. Suggestions always appreciated .
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